To allow accurate measurements of features, it is important that photographs be taken perpendicular to the surface. Back to list of elements. Coral reefs protect shorelines, provide habitat for commercially valuable fish species, and provide recreational and aesthetic enjoyment to people. 1994. 1994. These include formal training (workshops or universities); in-service training (agency training courses or workshops); on-the-job training (special duty assignments, working with other specialists, work-group or team assignments); and self-training (self motivated reading and study or correspondence courses). Managers cannot control natural stresses, but they can not ignore them either. Back to list of elements. However, managers should think beyond agency provided base funding to seek support from a variety of sources. 970-225-3547 (office) of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci. Furthermore, continued monitoring and research (see below in this Blueprint) should test the adequacy of such areas for protection and restoration, and for replenishment of adjacent areas. Salvat, B. 35pp. Bohnsack, J.A. National Park Service Political boundaries are not recognized by creatures of the sea, and spawning sites, larval dispersion, pollutant pathways, disease transmission, and many other influences are a function of prevailing currents and winds. In evaluating the need for plan revision and management success at five-year intervals, managers should consider bringing in an evaluation team to review the effectiveness of the plan and to recommend any needed revisions of management procedures. and D.C. Reed. Training It is best to use professionally produced, geo-referenced aerial photographs with a known scale. Johannes (Eds.) Outreach is simply "reaching out" to the audience with information, often conducted in a public forum in an informal setting (e.g. In the United States, these may include non-governmental support organizations such as the Fish and Wildlife foundation, the National Park Foundation, the National Park and Conservation Association, the Center for Marine Conservation, or any of many other organizations interested in the conservation of coral reef resources. + Appendices. These reports should come frequently in the form of newsletters or informational updates, periodically when information of significant proportion is obtained (e.g. 1201 Oak Ridge Drive, Suite 250 Resource restoration is often an important part of the necessary management actions for a coral reef area manager, and there is a growing body of literature for reference on this topic. Education and outreach should include a variety of program types including: 1) User-oriented programs that may focus on recreational or commercial user groups and their particular interests; 2) School groups and education classes with programs that will arouse interest and make students aware of protection needed; 3) Local community programs that might focus on overall reef values and economic benefits of protection to the community; 4) Active participation programs that require involvement of the public in carrying out management or protection activities; 5) Education of decision makers at all levels of government; and, 6) Interpretation for the press and media. IUCN Pub. Furthermore, the capacity of coral reef ecosystems to sustain use is uncertain and, in the United States, Federal agencies are required by Executive Order 13089 to go beyond sustainable use and to ensure that their actions will not degrade coral reef ecosystems. Cultural norms, local history, and political expedience may be among the factors that ultimately determine the approach to coral reef management in any given place. Aerial photographs can be used to document the distribution and extent of a coral reef ecosystem, the patterns of adjacent land and marine use which might affect the reef system (e.g., construction of tourism facilities, clearing of landscapes, and increases in boating activity), large scale changes in the reef ecosystem or adjacent seagrass beds resulting from natural events such as storms or from human activities. Restoration techniques following impacts include transplanting live corals, seeding coral larvae, replacing limestone substrate in deeply gouged reef areas, and transplanting seagrasses and other organisms. Regional and interagency networking should be a priority for MPA managers. Conceptual issues relevant to marine harvest refuges: examples from temperate reef fishes. 5. An additional challenge exists in getting information distributed to a wide audience with varying levels of knowledge. Coral reef area managers should also keep in mind that additional training may be essential for employees to become knowledgeable in activities such as law enforcement, safety and first aid, operation of specialized equipment, public speaking, and other practices that are necessary for effective management but not normally included in school curricula. Oceanus 36: 35--40. Marine reserves - A blueprint for protection. Back to list of elements. Manual of methods for mapping and monitoring of physical and biological parameters in the coastal zone of the Caribbean.. Florida Institute of Oceanography. Coral reef MPA managers should assess and, as needed and feasible, address the following: Damage assessments can include the costs of surveying the damage, the value of the resources lost, and the costs of restoration (including monitoring of results for success). Reefs are stressed by both natural processes such as hurricanes and human activities such as fishing and dredging. While managers have no control over hurricanes or outbreaks of coral disease, they can control recreational use of reefs, fishing intensity, anchoring of boats and, in some cases, sedimentation from careless coastal development. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 43:217-241. How marine fishery reserves can improve fisheries. To adequately administer a coral reef protected area and make conservation a reality, managers will need adequate personnel and funding. Marine and Coastal Protected Areas: A guide for planners and managers. Managers cannot control natural stresses, but they can not ignore them either. Information to disseminate can include how the coral reef protected area was designated, why it exists, what the species and communities that inhabit it are and why they are important, how it is managed, what is happening to the reef over time, current events that affect the protected area, or any other factor that may make the public more aware of the area’s resources or management issues. Therefore, every area manager must make public education and outreach one of the major elements in their management program. Back to list of elements. Photographs provide a permanent record of reef or surrounding landscape appearance at a given time. Many other coral reefs, not addressed by this Blueprint, are managed without boundaries and are subject to laws and regulations concerning use or pollution without specific geographic references (fisheries, water quality and tourism). Dixon, J.A. Foster, N. and M.H. Training Coral reef communities are linked in an inextricable web of commonality. 1984. Public support for coral reef protection programs will only come through public knowledge and understanding of the area's resources and management goals. Conceptual issues relevant to marine harvest refuges: examples from temperate reef fishes. 1976.   Monitoring: Therefore, every area manager must make public education and outreach one of the major elements in their management program. Plan Revision and Reporting Any successful management program must be periodically evaluated. Restoration Meet regularly with local leaders and interest groups of all persuasions, including those who support the MPA and those who do not. Each coral reef protected area should have a management plan that is prepared in cooperation with stakeholders and which addresses the elements of this Blueprint. Because the management of coral reef ecosystems is still a relatively new and evolving science, additional training is often highly valuable in helping employees and managers keep abreast of new information and technologies. Therefore, a well-designed monitoring program can alert managers that reefs are deteriorating, indicate what corrective measures may be required as well as document recovery following management action. ), with recreational users, and with interest groups (environmental, economic, political, and others) with a close relationship with the resource. 581p. For short-term objectives, prepare action plans for the coming year. It is "educating" various audiences about the species, habitat, dynamics, management issues, etc. 1994. 10. For these and other areas, the Task Force is directed to develop and implement research and secure measures necessary for reducing and mitigating coral reef ecosystem degradation and for restoring damaged reefs. Among the proven avenues for dispensing information are: guest teacher presentations, establishing curricula, field trips, articles in newspapers and newsletters, brochures, booklets, radio interviews or programs, guest presentations, slide shows, visitor centers, and various types of exhibits and displays. 37: 75-90. 1989. Regional networking needs coordination and constant nurturing. Therefore, every area manager must make public education and outreach one of the major elements in their management program. Knowledge of key spawning habitats and fish aggregation sites should also be incorporated into the design of wilderness boundaries. Whatever the mechanisms used, evaluation and plan revision are essential to a responsive management system. Fisheries 49:18-22. Back to list of elements. Lemay (eds.) Bohnsack, J.A. Stoddart, D.R. 9. More research on the potential of using coral larvae to restock denuded reefs, now showing some promise in the Pacific, may lead to more use of this method in reef restoration. U.S. MAB Prog., US Dept. Networking can afford benefits to management that are far reaching but not always apparent. For example, reefs located near sewage outfalls should be monitored for effects of high nutrient loads. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 43:217-241. For example, Biscayne National Park, a unit of the National Park System, reports over 300 small boat and ship groundings a year impacting seagrass beds and coral reefs. Posted: Friday, December 11, 2020. The value of coral reefs to mankind is only beginning to be understood. Foster, N. and M.H. Furthermore, continued monitoring and research (see below in this Blueprint) should test the adequacy of such areas for protection and restoration, and for replenishment of adjacent areas. human use and impacts Establishing an evaluation team of managers from other marine protected areas is a good way to obtain a more technical and perhaps objective review of management effectiveness. IUCN workshop on Managing Coastal and Marine Protected Areas, World Congress on National Parks, Bali, Indonesia, Oct. 1982. 1994. The results from these evaluations should be reported, and management plans must be revised as necessary to achieve goals. Education and outreach should include a variety of program types including: 1) User-oriented programs that may focus on recreational or commercial user groups and their particular interests; 2) School groups and education classes with programs that will arouse interest and make students aware of protection needed; 3) Local community programs that might focus on overall reef values and economic benefits of protection to the community; 4) Active participation programs that require involvement of the public in carrying out management or protection activities; 5) Education of decision makers at all levels of government; and, 6) Interpretation for the press and media. 970-225-9965 (fax) Watch for changes both outside and within the MPA that will have impacts on the coral reef system. A substantial portion of any coral reef protection area should be set-aside as marine wilderness, free from any resource exploitation. Political boundaries are not recognized by creatures of the sea, and spawning sites, larval dispersion, pollutant pathways, disease transmission, and many other influences are a function of prevailing currents and winds. Reserves prohibiting the exploitation of resources of the kind established on land in the United States are generally absent from the sea. Outreach is simply "reaching out" to the audience with information, often conducted in a public forum in an informal setting (e.g. At least 20 percent of any coral reef sanctuary, park, refuge or other such protected area should be designated as a marine wilderness and completely protected from fishing and other resource removal. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 43:217-241. These include an area manager and one or more staff with responsibilities in administration, maintenance, resource monitoring and management, law enforcement and rescue, and public relations. Salvat, B. Therefore, every area manager must make public education and outreach one of the major elements in their management program. Coral reef management handbook. Research Research on reefs with the greatest potential benefits for managers includes 1) monitoring (see Monitoring section), 2) experimental research, 3) research on new techniques and technologies, 4) research on the links between human actions and reef degradation, and 5) research on the synergy between natural and human processes which affect reefs. Coral reefs are fragile and susceptible to harm from many sources that have differing effects. Another experimental technique, the reintroduction of laboratory-reared Nassau groupers to locations of former spawning aggregations, may help replenish this over-fished species in the Caribbean. Bohnsack, J.A. Climate change is the biggest threat to the world’s coral reefs, causing mass bleaching, among other things. Because threats to the coral reef ecosystem may come from upland areas long distances away, monitoring programs should attempt to include observations of changes in local watersheds, stormwater discharges, sewage treatment facilities and agricultural activities. ), with recreational users, and with interest groups (environmental, economic, political, and others) with a close relationship with the resource. UNESCO Regional Office for Science and Technology, Southeast Asia. Natural stresses can combine with damage from recreational use or shoreline development. 3. Fort Collins, CO 80525 Management: Fisheries 49:18-22. In the long run, success will require a constantly expansive approach that (a) increasingly addresses the importance of forces outside the MPA boundaries and (b) is flexible enough to eventually become part of ecosystem management on a regional scale. Conserve Water. Sharing management experiences and information among managers and scientists working with coral reef protected areas is extremely useful. Conceptual issues relevant to marine harvest refuges: examples from temperate reef fishes. water and air pollution, over-fishing, human alteration of coastlines, and sedimentation). Plan Revision and Reporting However, managers should think beyond agency provided base funding to seek support from a variety of sources. IUCN Pub. The monitoring of reefs can also play a vital role in evaluating the success of specific management actions. It is important that considerable thought be given to management objectives and desired information when designing and implementing a monitoring program. It is important that considerable thought be given to management objectives and desired information when designing and implementing a monitoring program. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci. Marine Preserves / Wilderness Benefits: To allow accurate measurements of features, it is important that photographs be taken perpendicular to the surface. Outreach is less formal, for example, a story about how a sponge spawns or the latest data showing increased fish populations in a designated marine reserve. Some pelagic species just pass through reef areas, and some creatures remain on reef floors, but move up into the water column at night to feed or spawn. Education is usually more formal and begins with introducing the marine realm with a specific curricula. Franke. MPA managers must then be alert and adaptable to significant changes in environmental, demographic, economic, and political conditions. Although at least minimal agency base funding must be available to establish a protected area and initiate management activities, there are usually several potential additional sources of funding available to area managers to support management activities. Generally employees will be more motivated if they are knowledgeable in their area of responsibility and feel they have management support to improve that knowledge. Ship and small boat groundings can heavily damage coral reefs and virtually every coral reef system near human population centers experiences these impacts. In addition, it may be important to address smaller scale changes in coral reefs before they grow and become apparent in an aerial photograph. Progress toward achieving management objectives is often a direct function of personnel management practices and philosophy and how motivated people are to perform their duties. Education and Outreach 1994. Managers must commit to routine correspondence and reporting to colleagues. Agreement on actions should be sought among the interests represented in any of the above approaches, but action should not be predicated on complete consensus. 1976. Environmental education is often on-site, in or around the water, with specific lessons provided and objectives to be met. Although at least minimal agency base funding must be available to establish a protected area and initiate management activities, there are usually several potential additional sources of funding available to area managers to support management activities. Whatever the mechanisms used, evaluation and plan revision are essential to a responsive management system. Too often, coral reef areas are designated for protection and receive park or refuge status only to exist on paper and in name, with no effective management due to lack of funding and personnel. Development of a resource map is an essential step in management. Damage assessments can include the costs of surveying the damage, the value of the resources lost, and the costs of restoration (including monitoring of results for success). @ 1993. At least 20 percent of any coral reef sanctuary, park, refuge or other such protected area should be designated as a marine wilderness and completely protected from fishing and other resource removal. Of State, Washington D.C. 63p. Public support for coral reef protection programs will only come through public knowledge and understanding of the area's resources and management goals. Back to list of elements. Minimum equipment and facilities are needed to ensure proper protection of an area and these may include buoys or markers to indicate boundaries; boats of sufficient size to patrol and access the area; dive, monitoring and research equipment necessary to observe, document and evaluate resource conditions; facilities for recreational access and enjoyment; and sufficient boats and safety equipment for surveillance and law enforcement. Bohnsack, J.A. 1984. The definition of a coral reef MPA for the Reefs at Risk Revisited project includes all sites that overlap with coral reefs on the map (1,712 sites), but also those that are known (from a variety of sources) to contain reefs. In addition, it may be important to address smaller scale changes in coral reefs before they grow and become apparent in an aerial photograph. How marine fishery reserves can improve fisheries. Monitoring programs should trigger responsive actions of additional investigation when signs of change beyond normally anticipated levels are observed. By identifying and addressing the combined effects of natural and anthropogenic stresses, managers can better protect coral reefs. An effective advisory committee will include members representing specific interests as well as those with scientific or other expertise. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci. Evaluation should be continual and begin at the time of implementation, but a formal evaluation mechanism or procedure is desirable. enforcing laws and regulations of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci. Reef area managers should make themselves aware of the potential tools available to conduct restoration activities and seek assistance in designing restoration programs once damage is recognized. Salvat, B. 1994. A personal training plan should be developed for every employee, and managers should motivate employees to do additional training. Marine and Coastal Protected Areas: A guide for planners and managers. 1993. Education is usually more formal and begins with introducing the marine realm with a specific curricula. Such photographs and maps will usually require obtaining underwater photographic mosaics, use of underwater video-photography, and/or recording of information from grids placed on the reef surface. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 43:217-241. Although the cause of some damage is obvious, as when a ship runs aground on a reef, slow changes in the abundance or condition of reef organisms, such as may result from chronic pollution, can be difficult to track. Reporting of management results should be considered critical element to gaining and maintaining public support for the marine protected area. The results from these evaluations should be reported, and management plans must be revised as necessary to achieve goals. Harvesting Activities -decline of populations and loss of higher level carnivores within the ecosystem from over harvest, physical damage from fishing gear Regional networking needs coordination and constant nurturing. Public support for coral reef protection programs will only come through public knowledge and understanding of the area's resources and management goals. Information to disseminate can include how the coral reef protected area was designated, why it exists, what the species and communities that inhabit it are and why they are important, how it is managed, what is happening to the reef over time, current events that affect the protected area, or any other factor that may make the public more aware of the area’s resources or management issues. The ultimate purpose of monitoring is to provide early detection of change, and monitoring programs should be linked with and made an ongoing part of overall management strategies. 37: 75-90. 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