Jan Lahmeyerhas compiled lists showing the (partially interpolated) population development for what is Belarus, This was seen as a political risk in Russia, which similarly suppressed its Muslims in Central Asia and Caucasia. In 1897, it had a population of 128,200,000 (1897 year). His assassination in late 1916 by a clique of nobles could not restore the Tsar's lost prestige. You can help by adding to it. The larger cities (Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa, Sevastopol, Kerch, Nikolayev, Rostov) had an administrative system of their own, independent of the governorates; in these the chief of police acted as governor. Facts about the Russian Empire 3: the number of registered subjects. By the middle of 1915, the impact of the war was demoralizing. Its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov, ruled from 1762 until the end of the empire. In 1906, there were governors-general in Finland, Warsaw, Vilna, Kyiv, Moscow, and Riga. Film «Moscow clad in snow», 00:07:22, 1908, first Russian colonization of the Pacific, Russia in the American Revolutionary War § Russian Diplomacy during the War, introduced a number of increasingly erratic decrees, Government reforms of Alexander II of Russia, 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, History of the administrative division of Russia, Brig "Mercury" Attacked by Two Turkish Ships, "Chapter One On the Essence of Supreme Sovereign Power, Article 7. The tsar eventually ended up ruling Finland as a semi-constitutional monarch through the Governor-General of Finland and a native-populated Senate appointed by him. Economy. Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War (1654–67) that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, and the Russian conquest of Siberia. Though the empire was only officially proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad (1721), some historians would argue that it was truly born when Peter acceded to the throne in early 1682. The Senate (Pravitelstvuyushchi Senat, i.e. The Don Oblast was under the direct jurisdiction of the ministry of war; the rest had each a governor and deputy-governor, the latter presiding over the administrative council. Thus, while the tsar's personal powers were limited in scope after 28 April 1906, it still remained formidable. [63], The Russian Empire was, predominantly, a rural society spread over vast spaces. Despite losing almost all recently consolidated territories in the first year of the Russo-Persian War of 1826–28, Russia managed to bring an end to the war with highly favourable terms with the Treaty of Turkmenchay, including the official gains of what is now Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iğdır Province. Revolutionaries believed that the newly freed serfs were merely being sold into wage slavery in the onset of the industrial revolution, and that the bourgeoisie had effectively replaced landowners.[33]. Demographic History of the Russian Empire M.E. [55] The distinctly liberal notion of "progress" was replaced by a conservative notion of modernization based on the incorporation of modern technology to serve the established system. By native tongue The most spoken languages, from which nationality was determined were: [2] The Russian patriotic press used the Polish uprising to unify the Russian nation, claiming it was Russia's God-given mission to save Poland and the world. [1] It was not rescheduled before the Russian Revolution. [37] However, Britain became alarmed when Russia threatened Afghanistan, with the implicit threat to India, and decades of diplomatic maneuvering resulted, called The Great Game. After a brief resistance, the colony surrendered and the Russian settlers were deported to Odessa. Principalities of Kievan Rus', 1220–1240. Native people of the Caucasus, non-ethnic Russian areas such as Tartarstan, Bashkirstan, Siberia and Central Asia were officially registered as a category called inorodtsy (non-Slavic, literally: "people of another origin"). [68][69], The former serfs became peasants, joining the millions of farmers who were already in the peasant status. It also had supreme jurisdiction in all disputes arising out of the administration of the Empire, notably differences between representatives of the central power and the elected organs of local self-government. Another radical group was the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, exponents of Marxism in Russia. Austro-Hungarian Empire (1910): [Show / hide details] Providing information on the administrative division of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the level of the court districts in 1910. In the college itself, the voting for the Duma was by secret ballot and a simple majority carried the day. The Russian Empire entered the war in order to preserve its Great Power status, but it ended the war in a bout of revolution and decolonization. In the Almanach de Gotha for 1910, Russia was described as "a constitutional monarchy under an autocratic Tsar". Only one-quarter of the peasants were farmers; the remainder were mere laborers. Following the defeat of Napoleon, Alexander I had been ready to discuss constitutional reforms, but though a few were introduced, no major changes were attempted. Although Napoleon's Grande Armée reached Moscow, the Russians' scorched earth strategy prevented the invaders from living off the country. ", Richard Cavendish, "The Bolshevik-Menshevik split November 16th, 1903. Of the peasants, 25 percent cultivated church lands, Since the majority consisted of conservative elements (the landowners and urban delegates), the progressives had little chance of representation at all save for the curious provision that one member at least in each government was to be chosen from each of the five classes represented in the college. Apart from the Slavs (including the Poles), the Chief of Staff only considered it safe to give arms to Jews (who could not be officers). After a short reign of his widow Catherine I, the crown passed to empress Anna. The Cadets So the bourgeois democracy in Russia. The next census to take place in Russia only occurred at the end of 1926, almost three decades later. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system. The Russian Empire's state religion was Orthodox Christianity. [19], Although the Russian Empire played a leading political role in the next century, thanks to its defeat of Napoleonic France, its retention of serfdom precluded economic progress of any significant degree. Educational institutions in the empire included: Former empire in Eurasia (1721-1917) and North America (1721-1867), For other places with a similar name, see. [46], In 1903, at the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in London, the party split into two wings: the gradualist Mensheviks and the more radical Bolsheviks. To the East it had the Asiatic territories of the Empire, Siberia and the Kyrgyz steppes, from both of which it was separated by the Ural Mountains, the Ural River and the Caspian Sea — the administrative boundary, however, partly extending into Asia on the Siberian slope of the Urals. The result was the Decembrist revolt (December 1825), the work of a small circle of liberal nobles and army officers who wanted to install Nicholas' brother as a constitutional monarch. She contributed to the resurgence of the Russian nobility that began after the death of Peter the Great. Following a brief occupation, the Russian imperial army withdrew back into Georgia. He taught his imperial pupils to fear freedom of speech and press, as well as disliking democracy, constitutions, and the parliamentary system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West. [66][67], The household servants or dependents attached to the personal service were merely set free, while the landed peasants received their houses and orchards, and allotments of arable land. Exiled Jesuits set up elite boarding schools until their order was expelled in 1815. Kiev Gubernia at Russian Empire Population census 1897. The forests were sold, and the only prosperous landlords were those who exacted rack-rents for the land without which the peasants could not live upon their allotments. [12], Catherine the Great was a German princess who married Peter III, the German heir to the Russian crown. Soviet historiography proclaimed that the Russian Empire of the 19th century was characterized by systemic crisis, which impoverished the workers and peasants and culminated in the revolutions of the early 20th century. However the Russian forces fell further behind the technology, training and organization of the German, French and particularly the British military. As a result of its spending, Russia developed a large and well-equipped army, a very large and complex bureaucracy, and a court that rivaled those of Paris and London. The census project was suggested in 1877 by Pyotr Semenov-Tyan-Shansky, a famous Russian geographer and chief of the Central Statistical Bureau, and was approved by Tsar Nicholas II in 1895. Recent research into the physical stature of Army recruits shows they were bigger and stronger. According to returns published in 1905, based on the Russian Imperial Census of 1897, adherents of the different religious communities in the whole of the Russian empire numbered approximately as follows. To replace Muslim refugees who had fled across the new frontier into Ottoman territory the Russian authorities settled large numbers of Christians from an ethnically diverse range of communities in Kars Oblast, particularly the Georgians, Caucasus Greeks and Armenians, each of whom hoped to achieve protection and advance their own regional ambitions on the back of the Russian Empire. Nevertheless, Catherine realized that serfdom must be ended, going so far in her Nakaz ("Instruction") to say that serfs were "just as good as we are" – a comment the nobility received with disgust. He moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of Saint Petersburg, which featured much Western design. The Russian Empire was a natural successor to the Tsardom of Russia. Lastly, it promulgated new laws, a function which theoretically gave it a power akin to that of the Supreme Court of the United States, of rejecting measures not in accordance with fundamental laws. in. Alongside the local organs of the central government in Russia there are three classes of local elected bodies charged with administrative functions: Since 1870 the municipalities in European Russia have had institutions like those of the zemstvos. After Russia and its allies defeated Napoleon, Alexander became known as the 'saviour of Europe'. More generally, he finds that the well-being of the Russian people declined during most of the 18th century, but increased slowly from the end of the 18th century to 1914.[64][65]. But the specter of revolution and disorder continued to haunt her and her successors. However, at this time, the majority of the population lived in European Russia. According to the 1st article of the Organic Law, the Russian Empire was one indivisible state. of self-government and numerous privileges in matters affecting education, police and the administration of local justice. No! The latter path was advocated by Slavophiles, who held the "decadent" West in contempt. Everyone began to mobilize, and Berlin decided to act before the others were ready to fight, first invading Belgium and France in the west, and then Russia in the east. These elected their delegates to the Duma directly, and though their votes were divided (on the basis of taxable property) in such a way as to give the advantage to wealth, each returned the same number of delegates. Though the Empire was not officially proclaimed by Tsar Peter I until after the Treaty of Nystad (1721), some historians argue that it originated when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478. Its official church was the Russian Orthodox Church. The formerly Swedish-controlled Baltic provinces (Courland, Livonia and Estonia) were incorporated into the Russian Empire after the defeat of Sweden in the Great Northern War. [25] In the 1828–29 Russo-Turkish War, Russia invaded northeastern Anatolia and occupied the strategic Ottoman towns of Erzurum and Gümüşhane and, posing as protector and saviour of the Greek Orthodox population, received extensive support from the region's Pontic Greeks. [6] With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. On the left the Socialist Revolutionaries and Social Democrats wanted to expropriate the landowners, without payment, but debated whether to divide the land up among the peasants, or to put it into collective local ownership. Some provinces and regions were united in general governorships, such as those centered in Warsaw, Irkutsk, Kiev, and Moscow, and in the region of Amur, the Steppes, Turkestan, and Finnish lands. Under the Treaty of Nystad of 1721, the Baltic German nobility retained considerable powers Once Afghanistan was informally partitioned in 1907, Britain, France and Russia came increasingly close together in opposition to Germany and Austria. Between 1744 and 1867, the empire also controlled Russian America. The events of the February Revolution and the fierce political struggles inside army units facilitated disintegration and made it irreversible. Initially lost to the USSR, most of these territories reverted to imperial control during World War II – some indication of the area’s continuing strategic and economic importance. Inspired by Cossack named Yemelyan Pugachev, and proclaiming "Hang all the landlords! mile. Franklin, Simon, and Bowers, Katherine (eds). Subdivisions of the Russian Empire by largest ethnolinguistic group (1897).svg 4,648 × 2,744; 693 KB. Russian Empire Facts 42. France, Britain and Austria tried to intervene in the crisis but were unable to do so. Peter the Great changed his title from Tsar in 1721, when he was declared Emperor of all Russia. In the harsh and bitter Russian winter, thousands of French troops were ambushed and killed by peasant guerrilla fighters. Russian Empire Census. Some favored imitating Western Europe while others were against this and called for a return to the traditions of the past. The total valuation is then divided into three equal parts, representing three groups of electors very unequal in number, each of which elects an equal number of delegates to the municipal duma. [23] More extreme social doctrines were elaborated by such Russian radicals on the left as Alexander Herzen, Mikhail Bakunin, and Peter Kropotkin. List of Russian censuses. A description page for a census form from Kiev Governorate. With the exception of this territory – modern-day Alaska – the Russian Empire was a contiguous mass of land spanning Europe and Asia. Dubnow deemed the areas of the empire in which Jews were permitted to live—the so-called Pale of Settlement—the largest ghetto in the world, an… The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. It ended with the abdication of Nicholas II on March 15, 1917. Fyodor Dostoyevsky, for example, ridiculed the St. Petersburg newspapers, such as Golos and Peterburgskii Listok, which he accused of publishing trifles and distracting readers from the pressing social concerns of contemporary Russia through their obsession with spectacle and European popular culture. 1528 census of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), which formed the Lower House of the Russian parliament, consisted (since the ukaz of 2 June 1907) of 442 members, elected by an exceedingly complicated process. [8] Thus for example, the number of Poles is underrepresented. [62], The army performed poorly in World War I and became a center of unrest and revolutionary activity. Many peasants took "gratuitous allotments," whose amount was about one-eighth of the normal allotments. The tsar's most influential adviser was Konstantin Pobedonostsev, tutor to Alexander III and his son Nicholas, and procurator of the Holy Synod from 1880 to 1895. Russia had signed the Treaty of Georgievsk with the Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti to protect them against any new invasion of their Persian suzerains. He argues that they brought about measurable improvements in social welfare. His attention then turned to the North. State service was abolished, and Catherine delighted the nobles further by turning over to them most state functions in the provinces. [38] It finally ended with an Anglo-Russian Entente in 1907. Russia lacked that, and for university education, young men went to Western Europe. The Emperor never explicitly recognized Finland as a constitutional state in its own right, however, although his Finnish subjects came to consider the Grand Duchy as one. In this case, the population of Russian ethnicity was inflated. [43] Economic conditions steadily improved after 1890 thanks to new crops such as sugar beets, and new access to railway transportation. The deep indentations of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland were surrounded by what is ethnically Finnish territory, and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians had taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva River. [20], The liberal tsar was replaced by his younger brother, Nicholas I (1825–1855), who at the beginning of his reign was confronted with an uprising. The judicial system of the Russian Empire, existed from the mid-19th century, was established by the "tsar emancipator" Alexander II, by the statute of 20 November 1864 (Sudebny Ustav). Rabinowitch argues that "[t]he February 1917 revolution ... grew out of prewar political and economic instability, technological backwardness, and fundamental social divisions, coupled with gross mismanagement of the war effort, continuing military defeats, domestic economic dislocation, and outrageous scandals surrounding the monarchy. These allotments were given over to the rural commune, the mir, which was made responsible for the payment of taxes for the allotments. The areas increased every year; one-fifth of the inhabitants left their houses; cattle disappeared. This measure, which was endorsed by the third Duma in an act passed on 21 December 1908, is calculated to have far-reaching and profound effects on the rural economy of Russia. Newly discovered Arctic islands became part of the Russian Empire as Russian explorers found them: the New Siberian Islands from the early 18th century; Severnaya Zemlya ("Emperor Nicholas II Land") first mapped and claimed as late as 1913. While revenue rose from 9 million rubles in 1724 to 40 million in 1794, expenses grew more rapidly, reaching 49 million in 1794. The army had a mixed record in the war, losing several … READ MORE. It recorded demographic data as of 28 January [O.S. The Russian Empire … [citation needed]. But the "unlimited autocracy" had given place to a "self-limited autocracy". Such a census has occurred at various irregular points in the history of Russia. Her reign, which lasted nearly 20 years, is also known for her involvement in the Seven Years' War. A growing humanitarian movement attacked serfdom as inefficient. Novgorod Republic • Vladimir-Suzdal As part of this and her own political aspirations, Catherine waged a new war against Persia in 1796 after they had invaded eastern Georgia; victorious, she established Russian rule over it and expelled the newly established Russian garrisons in the Caucasus. 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