The first Spaniards reached this territory in early 16th century as part of colonial expeditions that created the global Spanish Empire. They intermarried with native women, resulting in a largely mixed (mestizo) and Creole population. Ignoring these conditions, the Spanish named the outpost Buenos Aires (Nuestra Señora del Buen Ayre). Without a king, the entire colonial system lost its legitimacy, and colonies revolted. The Paraguayan Jesuits gained many enemies as a result of their success, and the reducciones fell prey to changing times. When he tried to fill it with the Colorado Party, he split the party in two, and neither faction could establish itself in power without help from the military. At the same time, Spain was using most of its wealth from the New World to import manufactured goods from the more industrialized countries of Europe, notably Britain. As part of a war ritual, they ate their most valiant foes captured in battle in the hope that they would gain the bravery and power of their victims. Destitute and practically destroyed, Paraguay had to endure a lengthy occupation by foreign troops and cede large patches of territory to Brazil and Argentina. When Paraguayan junta learned that a porteño diplomat was coming to Asunción, it realized that it was not competent to negotiate and in November 1812, junta members invited Francia to take charge of foreign policy. The governments of Paraguay and the United States subsequently declared that the use of an airport (Dr Luís María Argaña International)[34] was a point of transfer for few soldiers in Paraguay at the same time. Like the area's other tribes, the Guaraní were cannibals. It greatly increased the powers of the Presidency, eliminated the vice-presidency, created a unicameral parliament, and increased the state's power over individual and property rights. After Cirilo Antonio Rivarola was forced to resign from the presidency in December 1871, Salvador Jovellanos come to power, backed by General Benigno Ferreira. The allied occupation of Asunción in 1869 put the victors in direct control of Paraguayan affairs. Foreign exchange earnings from electricity sales to Brazil soared, and the newly employed Paraguayan workforce stimulated domestic demand, bringing about a rapid expansion in the agricultural sector. This Congress must discuss the way of protecting our independence from Brasil, Buenos Aires and Lima... Paraguay is free, is independent and it is a Republic...", Paraguay was a rather isolated region of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, which made the ideas of regional independence stronger than in other provinces of the Viceroyalty. Using the slogan "Independence or Death", López declared war against Rosas in 1845 to support what was ultimately an unsuccessful rebellion in the Argentine province of Corrientes. The country’s third dictator, Francisco López, waged war against Uruguay, Brazil and Argentina in 1865-1870. Under Francia, the state acquired about 1,000 slaves when it confiscated property from the elite. Its adherents advocated a "new democracy" that, they hoped, would sweep the country free of petty partisan interests and foreign encroachments. Some tribes practiced polygamy intended to increase the number of children. An extremely frugal and honest man, Francia left the state treasury with at least twice as much money in it as when he took office, including 36,500 pesos of his unspent salary, the equivalent of several years' salary. [7] The road to Paraguayan independence began at the Congress of July 24, 1810, which was called by the last colonial governor to express the province's loyalty to the Spanish crown. In a move to gain control of the wealth of the reducciones, the Spanish king Charles III of Spain (1759–88) expelled the Jesuits in 1767 and expropriated their properties. It is a constitutional republic established in 1811 as a result of independence from Spain, and the elected President is both the head of state and head of government. On July 10 the project of the new Constitution was published and on August 4, 1940, approved in the referendum. Paraguay achieved its independence from Spain in 1811. In 2018,Mario Abdo Benítez was elected as his successor. His decision was greeted with derision in Asunción. [10] When the battle of Paraguarí started, Belgrano's troops had an initial advantage, but eventually Velazco's numerical superiority prevailed, thanks to the intervention of the Paraguayan patriots, around 3,500 men, resulting in the combined Paraguayan forces vastly outnumbering the Argentines. Velasco previously had lost face when, believing that Belgrano had won at Paraguarí, he fled the battlefield and caused a panic in Asunción. Oviedo fled the same day, first to Argentina, then to Brazil. Post-independence, Paraguay experienced a mix of coups, civil war, and dictatorships, with a more recent transition to civilian leadership and democratic elections. Social conditions – always marginal in Paraguay – deteriorated during the Great Depression of the 1930s. A severe blow is struck to the pride of Asunción when its offspring city, Buenos Aires, is made in 1776 the capital of the new viceroyalty of La Plata.Resentment of the pretensions of the new capital is no doubt part of the reason why the citizens of Asunción refuse to join Buenos Aires in 1810 in its declaration of independence from Spain. In early 1864 López warned Brazil against intervening in Uruguay's internal conflict. This antagonized Chaco tribes so much that they started a two-year war against the colony, which threatened its survival. He sealed Paraguay's borders to the outside world and executed anyone who attempted to leave the country. Yegros, a man without political ambitions, represented the nationalist criollo military elite, while Francia was more powerful of the two because he derived his strength from the nationalist masses. The government offended the army rank-and-file by refusing to fund pensions for disabled war veterans in 1936 while awarding 1,500 gold pesos a year to Estigarribia. Paraguayans set aside two days to celebrate their independence from Spain, which they won on May 14, 1811, after a bloodless revolution led by Dr. JosÉ Gaspar Rodríguez Francia (1766-1840). A general political amnesty was proclaimed and opposition allowed in Parliament. The soldiers who had shared the dangers and trials of the battlefield deeply resented the ineptitude and incompetence they believed the Liberals had shown in failing to prepare the country for war. [16], "As British and other foreign technicians poured into the country, they were set to work almost entirely on the creation of a military–industrial complex, and the greatest project of the era was a huge, sprawling fortress of Humaitá, the 'Sevastopol of the Americas'."[15]. The porteños bungled their effort to extend control over Paraguay by choosing José Espínola y Peña as their spokesman in Asunción. In his honor the Presidente Hayes Department was created. While Colorado politicians raked in the profits and themselves became large landowners, peasant squatters who had farmed the land for generations were forced to vacate and, in many cases, to emigrate. A non-party dictator without a large body of supporters, Morínigo survived politically – despite many plots against him – because of his astute handling of an influential group of young military officers who held key positions of power. [20] Many victims were lanced to death in order to save ammunition. In Hanratty, Dannin M. & Sandra W. Meditz. Paraguay lacked the industrial base to replace weapons lost in battle, and the Argentine-Brazilian alliance prevented Solano López from receiving arms from abroad. On June 26, 1869, the Decoud faction established their Club del Pueblo, led by Facundo Machaín, and on October 1, 1869, they started publishing the newspaper La Regeneración. British invasions of the River Plate of 1806–7 were repulsed by the local colonial troops and volunteer militias without help from Spain. In addition, they bought armaments from Germany and hired German military officers to train and lead their forces. Settlers had brought slaves to work as domestic servants, but were generally lenient about their bondage. Suspecting that Moríñigo would not relinquish power to González, a group of Colorado military officers, including Stroessner, removed Moríñigo from office on June 3, 1948. He also tried to reduce the threat from the marauding native tribes in the Chaco. And, according to Oxfam, stronism is directly responsible: between 1954 and 1989 some 8 million hectares were distributed irregularly among friends of power, he says. The justice system treated criminals leniently. Following independence from Spain in the early 19th century, Paraguay was ruled by a series of authoritarian governments characterized by nationalist, isolationist and protectionist policies. The Paraguayans proved more united than the Bolivians, at least initially, as President Eusebio Ayala and Colonel (later Marshal) Estigarribia worked well together. His domain included all of present-day Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay, most of Chile, as well as large parts of Brazil and Bolivia. [6] Because of the importance of the Jesuit missions in the development of Paraguay, the ruins of Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue have been designated World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.[8]. That's why both Paraguayans and Argentines consider that, despite the victory of Paraguay and the independence of the Intendencia del Paraguay from Buenos Aires, the actions of Belgrano were very important for the decisive Paraguayan independence from Spain. Paraguay's dispute with Bolivia over the Chaco, a struggle that had been brewing for decades, finally derailed the Liberals. Besides Alonzo now ruled Carlos Antonio López as co-consul. This group set up a provisional government in 1869, mainly under Brazilian auspices, and signed the 1870 peace accords, which guaranteed Paraguay's independence and free river navigation. In South America, Paraguay achieved independence from Spain in 1811. Sacks, Richard S. "Early explorers and conquistadors". Although the new party called for representative democracy, rights for peasants and workers, and socialization of key industries, it failed to broaden Franco's political base. It also created a two-man executive body with two consuls – Fulgencio Yegros and Francia. Cabañas accepted, on the condition that they left Paraguay within a day.[12]. Torture in the so-called "Chamber of Truth" was applied to those suspected of plotting to overthrow Francia. Beginning in 1559 the Real Audiencia of Charcas based in present-day Sucre controlled the province's legal affairs. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue, Learn how and when to remove this template message, National Republican Association-Colorado Party, "Paraguariae Provinciae Soc. Welcome to Latin America tour and travel guide. He arranged for the troops and artillery to fire constantly, forcing the Paraguayan troops to disperse. These developments supported Francia's policy of economic self-sufficiency. On November 12, 1864 Lopez ordered the seizure of a Brazilian warship in the Paraguayan territorial waters. Schaerer became the first president since Egusquiza to finish his four-year term. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Evidence indicates that these indigenous Americans developed a fairly sophisticated semi-nomadic culture characterized by numerous tribes, divided by language, who each occupied several independent multi-village communities. In contrast with the hospitable Guaraní, the Gran Chaco people, such as the Payaguá (whence the name Paraguay), Guaycurú, M'bayá, Abipón, Mocobí, and Chiriguano resisted European colonization. From alcohol and drugs to cars and exotic animals. Although Britain and France prevented him from moving against Paraguay, Rosas established a trade embargo on Paraguayan goods. This protectionism made the society self-sufficient. These advantages quickly proved irrelevant in the face of the Paraguayans' zeal to defend their homeland. "Conquer or die" became the order of the day.[21]. When did Paraguay gain independence? On August 1, 2004 a supermarket in Asunción burned down, killing nearly 400 people and injuring hundreds more. He assumed the post on August 31, 1870, but was overthrown the next day in a coup which restored Rivarola to power. The United States established diplomatic relations with Paraguay in 1861, approximately fifty years after Paraguay declared independence from Spain. They gained their independence from Spain. By the end of 1811, dissatisfied with the political role that military officers were playing, he resigned from the junta. ",, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles lacking in-text citations from August 2016, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from February 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2010, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 17:41. Smuggling - geographically favoured by Paraguay's location between Brazil, Argentina and Bolivia - became one of the main sources of income. Paraguayan victory. The Junta declared Paraguayan independence and in July 1811, they sent a letter to Buenos Aires expressing their desire of a confederation with Argentina, however, by October 1812, the confederation was disbanded after Argentina made its intentions to use … The last straw were Velasco's negotiations with Brazilian Portuguese during which he asked for military and financial help. The reducciones, which became quite wealthy, exported goods and supplied Indian armies.[6]. At the same time, a system of internal espionage destroyed free speech. The Legionnaires, however, had no more experience in the principles of republics than other Paraguayans. The missions lost their valuables, became mismanaged, and were abandoned by Guaraní. He allowed controversies and boundary disputes with Brazil and Argentina to smolder. "The Stronato". This move ignited a military uprising in Asunción on May 14, 1811 and formation of a power-sharing junta. A new party of regime supporters, the Revolutionary National Union (Unión Nacional Revolucionaria), was founded in November 1936. [3], Garcia's group discovered Iguazú Falls, crossed the Río Paraná and arrived at the site of Asunción, the future capital of the country, thirteen years before it was founded. Factbook > Countries > Paraguay > Government. Meanwhile, nationalist agitation led by the National Independent League (Liga Nacional Independiente) increased. Political instability began troubling the colony and revolts became commonplace. This community of about 350 chose wives and concubines from Guaraní women. The final spark to rebellion came when Franco was exiled for criticizing Ayala. On February 3, 1989, Stroessner was overthrown in a military coup headed by his close associate General Andrés Rodríguez. On May 4, 1954, Alfredo Stroessner ordered his troops into action against the government of Federico Chávez. 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